This Day in History

July 22


838      superior force of the Byzantine Empire is defeated by the forces of the Abbasid Caliphate in the Battle of Anzen   1180
1099      Godfrey of Bouillon is elected the first Defender of the Kingdom of Jerusalem—refused title 'king'   919
1209      Massacre at Béziers—Catholic crusaders capture Bézier in southern France, kill estimated 20,000 and burn the city   809
1298      Battle of Falkirk: English army led by King Edward I of England defeats the Scots led by William Wallace   720
1456      Christian forces led by John Hunyadi defeated the Ottoman Turks besieging Nándorfehérvár, now modern-day Belgrade   562
1461      Charles VII, King of France, dies after a reign of 39 years, age 58   557
1484      Battle of Lochmaben Fair ends with a Scottish Royal victory over Scottish rebels and English forces   534
1499      Battle of Dornach between the troops of Emperor Maximilian I and the outnumbered Old Swiss Confederacy—decisive Swiss victory   519
1587      group of English settlers led by John White arrive on Roanoke Island to re-establish abandoned colony   431
1686      Albany, New York is formally chartered as a municipality by provincial Governor Thomas Dongan   332
1784      German mathematician and astronomer Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel born   234
1796      surveyors under Moses Cleaveland land at the mouth of the Cuyahoga River on the shore of Lake Erie—decide to found a town   222
1802      Emperor Gia Long conquers Hanoi and unifies Viet Nam   216
1812      Battle of Salamanca results in a decisive Allied victory over the French army in Spain   206
1826      Italian astronomer and discoverer of the first asteroid Ceres, Giuseppe Piazzi dies in Naples, age 80   192
1829      Seventh-day Adventist minister and missionary James Nevins Andrews born in Poland, Maine   189
1869      German-American bridge engineer John A. Roebling dies, age 63   149
1887      birth of German experimental physicist and Nobel laureate Gustav Ludwig Hertz   131
1894      first motor race in the world—between Paris and Rouen, France—won by Jules-Albert de Dion in a steam powered car   124
1915      Canadian engineer Sandford Fleming dies in the Atlantic Time Zone, age 88   103
1932      Canadian inventor and radio pioneer Reginald Aubrey Fessenden dies in Bermuda, age 65   86
1932      American Broadway impresario and producer of the Ziegfeld Follies Florenz Ziegfeld, Jr. dies in Hollywood, California, age 65   86
1933      Wiley Post becomes first person to fly solo around the world—Lockheed Vega monoplane Winnie Mae   85
1934      bank robber John Dillinger killed by FBI agents—Chicago   84
1939      Jane Matilda Bolin is appointed judge of the New York City Domestic Relations Court—first black woman judge in U.S.   79
1951      Dezik and Tsygan are the first dogs to make a sub-orbital rocket flight reaching an altitude of 110 km—both survived   67
1962      Mariner 1, first mission in the Mariner program, is destroyed by a range safety officer less than 300 seconds after launch   56
1967      American poet Carl Sandburg dies, age 89   51
1972      Venera 8 makes soft-landing on Venus   46
2000      Spanish author of nvels, short-stories, and screenplays Carmen Martín Gaite dies in Madrid, age 74   18
2000      Canadian organic chemist Raymond Urgel Lemieux dies in Edmonton, age 80   18
2002      American composer, pianist, professor, musicologist, and punk rock singer Dika Newlin dies in Richmond, Virginia, age 82   16
2010      Science publishes paper on-line announcing Spitzer has detected 'buckyballs' in the planetary nebula Tc 1   8
2011      lone extremist sets off a bomb in Oslo and shoots teenagers on island of Utøya—kills 76 in Norway's worst terrorist attack   7
2013      American architect Natalie Griffin de Blois dies, age 92   5
2013      6.6 earthquake and aftershocks strikes Dingxi, China—kill 95, and injure 2395 others   5
2013      George Alexander Louis, son of Prince William and Kate Middleton and heir to the British throne, is born in London   5
2016      gunman opens fire near the Olympia shopping mall in Munich, Germany—kills 9 and injures 27 others before killing himself   2
2016      German-Canadian metallurgist, physicist, author, and educator Ursula Martius Franklin dies in Toronto, age 94   2
2017      South African Branden Grace sets a men's major championship record 62-stroke round on the British Open's Royal Birkdale   1

Dates are always somewhat ambiguous, the exact date depends on whether local time is used (and local time where) or Universal Time—for events on the surface of the Earth, local time is probably best but for an event that spans across the planet, it is not clear which local time to use!. For events in space it is more ambiguous. Further for dates after the original adoption of the Gregorian calendar but before it became accepted in different countries, the date given may be a Julian date or a Gregorian date depending upon where the event occurred. And, even the year may be different since the first of the year has not always been January 1 in all countries! The attempt is to use a date that is the one that is typically given.

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