This Day in History

June 28


1098      Christian Army of the First Crusade break the seige of Antioch and forces the army led by Kerbogha to retreat   919
1461      Edward IV is crowned King of England—will reign 9 years   556
1491      Henry Tudor born at Greenwich Palace—becomes Henry VIII, King of England, 18 years later   526
1577      Flemish painter Peter Paul Rubens born   440
1703      founder of the English Methodist movement John Wesley born in Lincolnshire, England   314
1712      Genevan philosopher, writer, and composer Jean-Jacques Rousseau born   305
1768      English lawyer and amateur meteorologist George Hadley dies, age 83   249
1776      British fleet bombards uncompleted Fort Moultrie protecting Charleston, South Carolina—unable to defeat the fort   241
1776      Thomas Hickey is executed by hanging—first person executed for treason against what was to become the U. S.   241
1778      Battle of Monmouth in New Jersey is first time the Continental army under Washington was not defeated by British forces   239
1836      fourth President of the U.S. James Madison, Jr. dies in Orange, Virginia, age 85   181
1838      Victoria is crowned Queen of the United Kingdom   179
1841      Paris Opera Ballet premieres the ballet Giselle by Adolphe Adam in the Salle Le Peletier   176
1846      Belgian-born musical instrument maker Adolphe Sax is issued a patent for the saxophone   171
1859      first conformation dog show is held in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England   158
1865      Union Army of the Potomac is disbanded   152
1875      French mathematician Henri Léon Lebesgue born   142
1880      Ned Kelly, Australian bushranger, captured at Glenrowen despite wearing bullet-proof body armour   137
1889      American astronomer Maria Mitchell dies, age 70   128
1894      Labor Day becomes a federal holiday by act of Congress   123
1906      German-born American physicist and Nobel laureate (1963) Maria Goeppert-Mayer born   111
1914      Franz Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria, and his wife Sophie are assassinated in Sarajevo—act leads to the Great War   103
1919      Treaty of Versailles signed, officially ending 'The Great War'   98
1952      first Miss Universe pageant is held in Long Beach, California—won by 17-year-old Armi Kuusela of Finland   65
1974      American engineer and first presidential science advisor Vannevar Bush dies in Belmont, Massachusetts, age 84   43
1989      Kareem Abdul-Jabbar announces his retirement from the NBA with a record 38,387 points scored   28
1994      members of a cult release sarin gas in Matsumoto, Japan—7 people are killed and 660 others injured   23
2004      U.S. led Coalition Provisional Authority dissolves—sovereign power is handed to the government of Iraq   13
2010      Robert C. Byrd (Democratic Senator, West Virginia) dies age 92—longest serving member of Congress—over 57 years   7
2011      United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization announces that Rinderpest (cattle plague) has been eradicated   6
2011      discovery of Kerberos, fourth known moon of Pluto, by the Hubble Space Telescope's Pluto Companion Search Team   6
2013      NASA decommissions Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) ultraviolet space telescope after ten years   4
2016      record winning Lady Vols basketball head coach Patricia Sue Summitt dies in Knoxville, Tennessee, age 64   1
2016      suicide bombers kill 42 and injure 230 others at Istanbul's Atatürk airport   1
2016      first flight of Facebook's Aquila UAU—damaged on landing   1

Dates are always somewhat ambiguous, the exact date depends on whether local time is used (and local time where) or Universal Time—for events on the surface of the Earth, local time is probably best but for an event that spans across the planet, it is not clear which local time to use!. For events in space it is more ambiguous. Further for dates after the original adoption of the Gregorian calendar but before it became accepted in different countries, the date given may be a Julian date or a Gregorian date depending upon where the event occurred. And, even the year may be different since the first of the year has not always been January 1 in all countries! The attempt is to use a date that is the one that is typically given.

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